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Before the formation of a cavity on the lung tissue, the phase of formation of cavernous masses begins. This is necrotic tissue that appears on the inflamed area of the organ. The action of enzymes on it transforms dry formations into liquid form, and then they gradually exit through the bronchi, leaving behind cavities that are filled first with air and then with liquid (when the bronchus loses its drainage function).

A three-layer capsule appears at the site of the lesion. During illness, the patient develops a single cavity. There is no inflammatory process or fibrotic changes in the bronchi, surrounding tissues or lymph nodes. Many patients are interested in whether pulmonary tuberculosis is contagious or not. It all depends on the type of disease, because... it can occur in open or closed form. This disease is infectious in nature. It is called so-called. tuberculosis bacillus.
In the first case (with an open form of the lesion), the tuberculosis bacillus gets into the sputum, whichI am secreted by the patient when he coughs or coughs. This type of tuberculosis is the most dangerous. The infection is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through airborne droplets or through household items.
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In the closed form of pulmonary tuberculosis, the pathogenic bacillus penetrates into the organ tissue, forming small tubercles on the surface. The bacillus cannot get out of them, therefore a patient infected from a patient with an open form of the disease is only a carrier of tuberculosis, but cannot transmit it to another person.
Therefore, doctors consider the open form of pulmonary tuberculosis dangerous and contagious, while patients with the closed form are considered relatively safe for others. Types of cavernous lung lesions. There are several types of cavities according to their pathogenesis. Decaying, fresh cavities during the first phase of decay of lung tissue. Such a cavity does not have clear boundaries. Elastic, fresh formations that are formed in the form of two-layer cavities with a clear boundary. They contain the rudiments of cavernous masses and granulation membranes. Encapsulated cavities with a three-layer, clearly defined structure. Such formations are called rigid. Fibrous formations that appear during the development of fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis. In this case, the resulting cavity is surrounded by a fibrous membrane. Sanitized formations that develop after the release of internal masses and granular formations from cavities. These are residual voids that most often form after treatment of the disease.

The dimensions of the cavities can range from 20 to 50 mm and above. The diameter of the cavities depends on the severity of tuberculosis. Most often, doctors find elastic or rigid cavities in patients. The infiltrate appears in them due to the presence of lymphocytes, macrophages and leukocytes in the caseous masses. These cells die, after which fluid appears, which is released through the bronchi. In this case, doctors diagnose infiltrative tuberculosis at the decay stage.

Symptoms of cavernous lung lesions. Most often, the disease affects one lung. The disease develops 3 or 4 months after an unsuccessful or ineffective attempt to cure another form of tuberculosis. The most pronounced clinical picture of the lesion is in the decay phase, when the patient develops a severe cough with sputum production. The patient often experiences hemoptysis. When examining a patient above the decay cavity, the doctor clearly hears moist rales. After a cavity appears, the symptoms of the disease become scanty, non-specific and mildly expressed. The patient may experience the following symptoms.

Asthenia - a person feels powerless. Constant fatigue develops. The patient loses his appetite. A sharp decrease in body weight. The patient loses weight within 1-2 months. Cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis at the last stage of development is characterized by a high danger for people around the patient. This occurs due to the release of a large number of mycobacteria into the space surrounding the patient when coughing with sputum.
If the disease passes in a latent form, then against the background of the person’s general health, he begins to experience pulmonary hemorrhages. They appear due to the development due to the penetration of the terminal arteries of the lung into the cavity at the last stage of the development of the disease (Rasmussen aneurysm). The source of bleeding may be the development of cavitary aspergillosis. Moreover, it can also appear on already sanitized caverns. If the disease is complicated, then a breakthrough of the cavernous capsule into the pleural cavity occurs. In this case, pleural empyema or bronchopleural fistulas appear.

The disease lasts no more than 24 months. When cavities heal, a scar, tuberculoma, or sanitized cavity may form. If this does not happen, then the fibrous-cavernous form of pulmonary tuberculosis develops. Diagnosis of the disease in various ways.

Most often, patients who exhibit symptoms of the described disease are already registered at the dispensary at the time of diagnosis. In their anamnesis one can find information about previous tuberculosis. Most often, the disease is detected during a preventive examination of the patient using fluorographic equipment; less often, it is diagnosed in a patient who is seeing a doctor for the first time. This occurs due to the latent course of the disease, because a person’s blood counts are almost normal, although sometimes an increase in ESR and signs of lymphocytopenia may appear.

The basis for examination may be a cough with sputum or hemoptysis. After fluorography, the patient is sent for a chest x-ray. In this case, ring shadows are detected, which have peripheral localization of formations. Most often, shadows are round or oval.