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Cavernous and fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis are successively developing stages. They can occur against the background of any form of pathology under the influence of factors. In phthisiology, several types of disease are distinguished depending on pathogenesis. Depending on the form of the disease, doctors distinguish types.

Fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease in which the patient develops cavities in the respiratory organs. Decay products accumulate in damaged areas. Under the influence of enzymes itand transform into a liquid state, liquid accumulates in the cavities. During a cough, the patient coughs it up, after which the liquid again fills the caverns. The duration of development of this stage of the disease ranges from 2 months to a year.
When treating cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, the prognosis is favorable. Small cavities close over time and become covered with scars. Patients with AIDS, immunodeficiency or poor therapy will have complications. The pathology poses a danger to others, the patient is contagious. During a cough, sputum with bacteria spreads indoors, and a person with tuberculosis inhales Koch's bacillus, microorganisms settle on healthy tissue of the lungs and digestive organs.
11am CT

In the cavernous form, the cavities are concentrated on one side of the organ in its upper part, the symptoms are expressed during the period of tissue decay. The patient experiences hemoptysis, shortness of breath, and moist rales. When cavities are formed, the signs of the disease become less pronounced. The patient notices fatigue, sleep disturbances, weight loss, loss of appetite, and the temperature periodically rises. Opening pulmonary hemorrhage indicates a hidden inflammatory process in the lungs. A complication and condition indicating pathology will be a breakthrough of the cavity into the pleural cavity.
The disease progresses with exacerbations if a secondary infection occurs. The patient's skin dries out, the spinal muscles atrophy, and the pathology continues for about 2 years. With adequate treatment, the person recovers. If there is no therapy, a fibrous-cavernous type of pathology develops. A patient with a severe stage of the disease is registered at a tuberculosis dispensary. Since the signs of pathology are erased, cavities are detected during routine fluorography. X-ray of cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis shows round, darkened outlines. Diagnosis is aimed at differentiating the disease from other pathologies.

Laboratory tests are used for diagnosis. sputum culture, blood test, testing the sensitivity of microorganisms to drugs. Treatment occurs surgically, depending on the stage of the disease, the choice of medications is based on the diagnosis. At the initial stage, treatment occurs with anti-tuberculosis drugs. To increase the concentration of active substances in the body, medications are administered in three ways. Of the antibiotics, preference is given to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Streptomycin. But the choice is individual, so drugs can be replaced with analogues. Before prescribing the medicine, the doctor must conduct a sensitivity test of microorganisms.

A couple of months after the start of treatment, you can resort to physical therapy. Used for therapy. If there is no improvement within six months of therapy, doctors are inclined to perform surgery. Various indications for surgical intervention. The operation is performed in the first six months after the start of chemotherapy to reduce the risk of complications. There are several types of surgery.
Pneumolysis. During the operation, a cavity is formed between the intrathoracic fascia and the parietal layer of the pleura, for which artificial pneumothorax is used. The purpose of pneumolysis is to heal cavities and stop the release of Koch's bacillus. But the procedure often causes complications, so it is rarely used. Thoracoplasty. During surgery, the ribs are removed to reduce the volume of the chest cavity. The intervention is performed under inhalation anesthesia. It gives good results. Complications rarely occur if tissues close to the ribs were affected during the operation.

Lung resection. For tuberculosis, a small part of the lung is removed. With a small amount of lung tissue, cavities, infectious foci or tuberculomas can be removed. The intervention is performed on both lungs or at intervals of several weeks. The operation is well tolerated and there are almost no complications. Most patients recover. Cavern sanitation. Minimally invasive intervention performed in the presence of large cavities. During the operation, the cavity is opened and cleared of contents. Recovery occurs in 85% of patients.